Tuesday, May 26, 2020
First and foremost, how do we defined a homeless person? According to National Health Care for the Homeless Council, homeless is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an individual who lacks housing, including an individual whose primary residence during the night is a supervised public or private facility that provides temporary living accommodations, and an individual who is a resident in a transitional housingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"definition of homelessness,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). It is important to recognize that homelessness is worldwide and social problem because it is directly affected by large social forces that affects individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social life. In a research made by Coalition for the homeless says that in December 2015, there were 60,096 homeless people in New York city, including 14,553 homeless families with 23, 885 homeless children. Moreover, this becomes a social problem, due in large part to structural inequality and it affects a wide variety of people that can range from those people experiencin g eviction, unemployment, family relationship breakdown, domestic violence, health crises, poverty, mental illness and substance abuse. These reasons can be the precipitating factor in the onset of homelessness. One of the sociological theories that can be used to explain homelessness is Marxism. Marxism is based on idea of Karl Marx (1818-1883), who is a sociologist, historian, revolutionary and an economist. His theory is focused on society, economics and politics, which is term Marxism or what is known as conflictShow MoreRelatedWhy Homelessness Is Worldwide And Social Problem866 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestransitional housingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"definition of homelessness,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). It is important to recognize that homelessness is worldwide and social problem because it is directly affected by large social forces that affects individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social life. In a research made by Coalition for the homeless says that in December 2015, there were 60,096 homeless people in New York City, including 14,553 homeless families with 23,885 homeless children. Moreover, this becomes a social problem, due in large involvement to structuralRead MoreHomeless On A Single Winter Night Essay1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2015). Worldwide, acquiring an accurate picture of homelessness has proven challenging due to varying definitions country to country. Furthermore, data on homelessness has also proven to be extremely sparse in many parts of the world. The last worldwide survey was attempted by the United Nations. Based on the survey it was estimated that 100 million people were homeless across the world (United Nations, 2005). Due to the lack of data, greater focus should be placed on the issue of homelessness. ConsideringRead MoreWhy Do People Become Homelss1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesM1 ASSIGNMENT WHY PEOPLE BECOME HOMELESS AND WHY IT DOESNÃ¢â¬â¢T STOP LAVERNA MOORER ARGOSY UNIVERSITY Abstract This paper is going to present to you why people become homeless and why it does not stop Homelessness is a problem that have getting out of hands because of not addressing the situation on time. The focus is not so much the why but, if it will ever stop. Homelessness is a phenomenon that has so much to address research has been done; it was discover that for our government to concentrateRead MoreNegative Effects Of Homelessness1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany people tend to want to ask themselves the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Does homelessness affect me at all?Ã¢â¬ Typically, if homelessness isnÃ¢â¬â¢t affecting a certain individual or anyone that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re close to, they tend to not want to help. From previous research done by Pergantis, Tolliver, Bishop, 2016, it is a known fact that about 578,242 people in America are considered to be homeless. People who were homeless back then done by were considered as disconnected from the world and they have also encountered psychological Read MoreThe Problem Of Homeless Children963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbottle in a brown paper bag. However, homelessness for the past years has begun to be more visible. Homeless children are portrayed in welfare and academic literature as a category of children at risk. Whatever transpires in early childhood can affect a child s lifestyle. In young children, the results are harsh. Stress can result from major trauma, which can weaken the developing brain and lead to lifelong problems. Homelessness is becoming exceeding worldwide affecting countries with no regardRead MoreThe Disgrace of Veteran Homelessness Essay1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin the world as well as the strongest military. Yet even America falls prey to a social ill that plagues every society, that of the homelessness of its citizens. Shamefully of those homeless 23% are reported to be veterans, although the actual numbers may be much larger (Coalition for the Homeless). These soldiers gave of themselves for their country and now annually more than 500,000 of them experience homelessness (National Coalition for the Homeless). It is a disgraceful fact that in the greatestRead MoreThe Homeless Americ What Happens People Who Become Homeless1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDo you ever wonder why there are so many people out there who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have anything but the clothes on their back and are out in the streets begging for whatever they can receive from others? Maybe they just were down on their luck. Some of them you would probably think was because of their own fault. Maybe it was, or maybe because of circumstances out of their control they just lost it all. Families as well as individuals can be homeless. The National Center on Family Homelessness notes that about one-thirdRead MoreDifferences Between Inequality And Class Differences1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestwo strands Making Lives and Ordering Lives and discuss how they persist over time and will look particularly at economic inequality, homelessne ss and class differences. Concluding that the whole world is effected by continuing inequalities and differences, which is only getting worse. What is Ã¢â¬ËInequality? Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s definition Ã¢â¬ËThe unequal distribution of valued social resources within a society or between societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Blakeley Staples, (2014 ) p13, 25). Thus it is the unequal opportunities, betweenRead MoreThe Issues Of Homelessness Around The World2250 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages1. Introduction This report will be discussing the issues of homelessness around the world and in Australia. Homeless people are people who are living under rough circumstances due to money issues and other problems in the society, there are 100 million people estimated worldwide who are homeless. Those who are homeless all have a different story as to how they got there, usually having no support from their friends or family leaving them isolated and unwanted. This report will be covering theRead MoreHabitat for Humanity1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHabitat for Humanity Habitat for Humanity International is a nonprofit, world-wide Christian housing ministry. Habitat for Humanity International seeks to eliminate poverty housing and homelessness from the world, and to make decent shelter a matter of conscience and action. Ã¢â¬Å"Habitat for Humanity works in partnership with God and people everywhere, from all walks of life, to develop communities with people in need by building and renovating houses so that there are decent houses in decent communities
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Taylr Wacker 12/11/14 Women, Men, and Society MWF 12-12:50 To women love is a personal and subjective experience. If you go around and ask the question Ã¢â¬Å"What is love?Ã¢â¬ you will get so many different answers. The reason for this is because to each women different things are important. It may mean loyalty, passion, excitement, warmth and friendship. Women also think that love can mean that someone will do anything for the other person and be there for that person no matter what the situation. Love, in ancient Greece, was known to be the admiration between a man and beautiful young boy. In the thirteenth century, the definition of love was the love between a woman married to another man and knight. Love between a wife and husband was the norm in Puritan New England. Also in Victorian times, the asexual commitment from a mother for her child was the definition of love. As you can see there were many different types of definitions of love. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society norm definition of love is a longstanding heterosexual relationship between two committed lovers. Studies have been proven that women are more of the Ã¢â¬Å"expertsÃ¢â¬ when it comes to love. But these have been more biased based. The difference between men and women when it comes to who are more experiences is actually rather small when using unbiased based research. Women have been known to be closer with family, but both women and men are less close to their father than their mother. Women tend to want to get closer to theShow MoreRelatedThe Roles of Men and Women in a Society967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Roles of Men and Women in a Society There is a complexity in understanding the role of men and women in a society. Scientists and biologists are challenging themselves to explain the mental and behavioral processes of genders. Natalie Angier born and raised in New York writes Ã¢â¬Å"Men, Women, Sex and DarwinÃ¢â¬ an essay about evolutionary psychology and the misleading perceptions it has women. She focuses on five topics that the theory argues proving them wrong, and using them for support. TheRead MoreThe Role Of Men And Women During A Patriarchal Society1764 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof Men and Women in a Patriarchal Society Patriarchy has been evident throughout history and it is no wonder that stories in which a male protagonist or men overall would be seen and treated differently for their actions, especially towards women and multiple lovers, and women would be more criticized for the same actions done by a man. The Odyssey by Homer, an ancient Greek author best known for writing the Iliad and the Odyssey, is a good example of the difference on roles of men and women andRead MoreSociety s Expectations And Rules For Men And Women1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnoticed that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations and rules for men and women are very different. I come from a Latin culture and gender roles that we believe in are instilled in us at a young age. The old traditional gender roles for the females and males roles and is instilled at a young age. For the male gender roles is always the same and feel that a male always have to support the female and the children. The male role thinks that itÃ¢â¬â¢s impossib le for women to be educated and support herself and children. InRead More Equality Between Men and Women in Modern Society vs. Ancient Greek Society625 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn todays society, women hold a position equal to that of a man. However, this has not always been the case especially in the Ancient Greek society. In the society there were many rules and regulations for all, but in particular the women had it the hardest. Women were seen as insignificant characters in the Ancient Greek society. While the menÃ¢â¬ ¦.women attained the most difficult job of all, bearing children. These women in the society had very little freedom, actually no freedom at all. Can youRead MoreWomen Are Valued Differently From Men in Irish Society Essay1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWomen Are Valued Differently From Men in Irish Society Ã¢â¬Å"I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is: I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat or a prostituteÃ¢â¬ - Rebecca West, 1913. This quote, spoken almost a century ago, is still relevant in the Ireland of the new Millennium and even the roaring of the Celtic Tiger cannot drown it out. Women can vote, can serve as jurors, judges, TDs or TaoiseachRead MoreGender Roles Of Men And Women Have Been Present In Society1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender roles of men and women have been present in society for a number of years, and the traditional roles have stuck through all the cultural changes. What about the people who do not identify themselves with their born gender but, instead another? How are they affected by how society sees them for not conforming to the traditional gender roles? Transgender people are faced with many judgements from their community based on how they identify themselves, their actions and how they express themselvesRead MoreAre Women Less Privileged? Today s Society Than Men?1808 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAre women less privileged in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society than men? Yes, women face many issues on a regular basis that men donÃ¢â¬â¢t experience to the same extent. Women are victim to sexual violence, domestic abuse, and gender bias. Firstly, a very common violation to the human rights of women, is sexual violence and harassment. This is a very extensive topic, covering much more than just sexual assault. Sexual violence covers street harassment, unwanted sexual touching or comments, rape, and consent issues. SecondlyRead MoreMen or Women - Who has the Upper Hand in American Society Today?1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBeing either a man or a woman in society today has certain advantages. Most people could identify situations where both men and women have the upper hand in various aspects of society. However, men seem to have the advantage in more aspects of life in the United States than women. Men have the upper hand over women in society in many ways. For example, men receive higher wages, get more promotions, are elected to higher political offices, and are thought of as str ong and invincible. They also getRead MoreHas Society Treated Men and Women Equally Through the Years? Essay812 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHas society treated men and women equally through the years? During the most inhuman, barbaric, and sadistic period of history, women seem to be mistreated in a higher degree. For many years women were not only considered the weaker sex but also repressed and dehumanized by the male dominated society. As terrible as The Holocaust that persecuted and killed millions of Jewish and other groups considered undesirable, was the impact of slavery on American slaves. Slavery and male dominant society occurredRead MoreGender Roles Are Indicators Of A Society Is Structured, Based On The Expectations Of Men And Women Essay1767 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesGender roles are indicators of how a society is structured, based on the expectations of men and women. In particular, most of the surviving sources from the period are written from male perspectives, so what remain s is how male writers reinforced their idea of a woman (Blundell, 2001). Characters of each gender needed to fill a set of expectations to conform to societal definitions of each gender, with characters defying such expectations being seen as shocking and unexpected. Under this lens, male
Friday, May 15, 2020
Black History Month is a month set aside to learn, honor, and celebrate the achievements of black men and women throughout history. Since its inception, Black History Month has always been celebrated in February. Find out how Black History Month originated, why February was chosen, and what the annual theme for Black History Month is for this year. Origins of Black History Month The origins of Black History Month can be traced back to a man named Carter G. Woodson (1875Ã¢â¬â1950). Woodson, the son of former slaves, was an amazing man in his own right. Since his family was too poor to send him to school as a child, he taught himself the basics of a school education. At age 20, Woodson was finally able to attend high school, which he completed in just two years. Woodson then went on to earn a bachelors and masters degree from the University of Chicago. In 1912, Woodson became only the second African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University (W.E.B. Du Bois was the first). Woodson used his hard-earned education to teach. He taught both in public schools and at Howard University. Three years after earning his doctorate, Woodson made a trip that had a great impact on him. In 1915, he traveled to Chicago to participate in a three-week celebration of the 50th anniversary of the end of slavery. The excitement and enthusiasm generated by the events inspired Woodson to continue the study of black history year-round. Before leaving Chicago, Woodson and four others created the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH) on September 9, 1915. The following year, the ASNLH began publication of the Journal of Negro History. Woodson realized that most textbooks at the time ignored the history and achievements of blacks. Thus, in addition to the journal, he wanted to find a way to encourage interest and study of black history. In 1926, Woodson promoted the idea of a Negro History Week, which was to be held during the second week of February. The idea caught on quickly and Negro History Week was soon celebrated around the United States. With a high demand for study materials, the ASNLH began to produce pictures, posters, and lesson plans to help teachers bring Negro History Week into schools. In 1937, the ASNLH also began producing the Negro History Bulletin, which focused on an annual theme for Negro History Week. In 1976, the 50th anniversary of the beginning of Negro History Week and the bicentennial of the United States independence, Black History Week was expanded to Black History Month. Ever since then, Black History Month has been celebrated in February around the country. When Is Black History Month? Woodson chose the second week of February to celebrate Negro History Week because that week included the birthdays of two important men: President Abraham Lincoln (February 12) and Frederick Douglass (February 14). When Negro History Week turned into Black History Month in 1976, the celebrations during the second week of February expanded to the entire month of February. What Is the Theme for This Years Black History Month? Since its inception in 1926, Negro History Week and Black History Month have been given annual themes. The first annual theme was simply, The Negro in History, but since then the themes have grown more specific. Here is a list of the most current and future themes for Black History Month. 2014 - Civil Rights in America2015 - A Century of Black Life, History, and Culture2016 - Hallowed Grounds: Sites of African American Memory2017 - The Crisis in Black Education2018 - African Americans in Times of War2019 - Black Migrations
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The primary focus of psychoanalysis is uncovering the underlying factors hidden in a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s unconscious to understand the problems they are facing. In Ã¢â¬Å"WildÃ¢â¬ Analysis, Freud emphasizes the responsibility of the therapist go well beyond stating the facts and interpretation. The therapist must pave the way for the client to understand the repressed thoughts and behaviors to guarantee effective therapy (Freud, 2002, p. 7). A practitioner that enforces the psychoanalytic approach in his practice is Dr. Chad Parlett. Dr. Parlett is a trained psychoanalyst who emphasizes on revealing underlining causes that often manifested themselves throughout the childhood years. He believes in the talking cure and pushes his clients to experience thisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What we are referring to is supplying the patient our knowledge of the content of his or her mind and the manner in which this content is either expressed or avoided. (p.118) Both Greene and Parlett established this notion that analyzing client disclosures should be much more than what it is on the surface. The interpretation should reveal something new that the consumer was initially blinded from, giving them insight on what they are doing. Thus, the interpretation itself should establish a greater understanding of who the patient is. A therapeutic technique such as journaling may be helpful in monitoring a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s events and feelings when they are not in session. Although journaling may not be a primal psychoanalytic technique, it does provide a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of their own progress and what coping skills they are currently using. The client could always reference back to the journal during the session which can offer the therapist a new outlook on the situation which generates their interpretation. Dr. Parlett incorporates journaling with his theoretical orientation because it gives him more information about the clients as well as give them a more active role in their own treatment. Also, Mark Stone has found journaling to be significantly effective with his own clients. According to Stone (), journalingShow MoreRelatedPerception Based On Metaphors And Linguistics1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunconscious, and to understand the problems they are facing. In Ã¢â¬Å"WildÃ¢â¬ Analysis, Freud e mphasizes that the responsibility of the therapist goes well beyond stating the interpretation. The therapist must pave the way for the client to understand the repressed thoughts and behaviors to guarantee effective therapy (Freud, 2002, p. 7). A practitioner that enforces the psychoanalytic approach in his practice is Dr. Chad Parlett. Dr. Parlett is a trained psychoanalyst from South Jersey. His work emphasizes
External Analysis The General Environment of the Industry Jamba Juice and its immediate competitors operate under the industry entitled Ã¢â¬Å"snack and nonalcoholic beverage barsÃ¢â¬ [ (U.S. Census Bureau) ]. According to the U.S. Census Bureau the official description of the snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars is as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) preparing and/or serving a specialty snack, such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, cookies, or popcorn or (2) serving nonalcoholic beverages, such as coffee, juices, or sodas for consumption on or near the premises. These establishments may carry and sell a combination of snack, nonalcoholic beverage, and other related products (e.g., coffee beans,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In analyzing the bargaining power of buyers, it is important to look at both categories under a separate scope. End users are those individuals walking in the company stores, ordering a smoothie and a cookie, paying the cashier and then telling her friend how wonderful the ambiance is. This buyer segment does not purchase large amounts of product at one time and likely chooses Jamba because of the quality of the ingredients. With no switching costs and a growing industry offering many options, patrons of smoothie cafÃ ©s can freely purchase their delightful cool beverage anywhere. According to the U.S. Census Bureau the number of stores within the Ã¢â¬Å"snack and nonalcoholic beverage barsÃ¢â¬ industry grew from 36,036 in 2002 to 49,463 in 2007 [ (U.S. Census Bureau) ]. This trend means that Jamba Juice will have to increase customer loyalty to battle the increased competition. The second type of buyer is the franchisee, which pays Jamba Juice for the right to use its trademarks and proprietary business information (recipes, processes, menus, and other resources). As noted in the ca se, Jamba engaged in a growth strategy in 2007 that involved acquisition of a majority of the franchised locations. This approach reduced the franchiseeÃ¢â¬â¢s buying power and allowed Jamba to have the upper hand. With the downturn of the economy forthcoming, franchise demands would likely deteriorate. In spite of the growth opportunities offered by franchises, Jamba maintainedShow MoreRelatedJamba Juice Case Study Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCASE STUDY Jamba Juice The Brief Jamba Juice is a specialist vendor of healthy blended beverages, juices and snacks, with over 600 franchised and company retail outlets in California and over 20 other states. The company wished to carry out a classic promotion: to drive visitors to its stores over the course of a two week campaign with a Ã¢â¬Å"BOGOÃ¢â¬ (Buy one get one free) beverage offer. The Approach Guided by digital advertising agency Xylem CCIÃ¢â¬â¢s media agent, JL 360, Jamba Juice decided to conductRead MoreJamba Juice Case Study Solution1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A ten year old California girl started an online petition which collected over 140,000 signatures asking Jamba Juice to phase out its Polystyrene cups which she believes are harmful for the environment. James White, the CEO of Jamba Juice has to decide on how to respond to this public outcry and whether he should phase out the polystyrene cups. The objective of this paper is to help James White make a decision by studying the implications of various available options and their impact onRead MoreJamba Juice607 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMGT 4800 Ã¢â¬â Strategic Management Case Study Write Up Ã¢â¬â Jamba Juice April 8, 2013 Major trends in the general environment Jamba Juice has tried to capture a good portion of health conscious consumers by providing healthy smoothies and other nutritious foods for customers on the go. Even though there are direct competitors such as Planet Smoothie, Starbucks, Dunkin Donuts, Panera Bread and McDonalds, Jamba Juice remains competitive by offering its unique blend of smoothies. They are made withRead MoreJamba Juice Case1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJamba Juice Case Thought Starters 1. Please analyze the external environment for Jamba Juice concentrating on the six external variables discussed in class. 2. Review the value chain for Jamba Juice and discuss where they are gaining a competitive advantage. 3. Discuss the marketing strategy for Jamba Juice and how it is positioning itself. Do you agree with this strategy? 4. If you were a marketing director for Jamba Juice and were asked to develop an advertising and media plan whichRead MoreKerzner Office Equipment (Research) Assignment3675 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesManagement Summit conference held in London, Henri-Dominique Petit, vice-president and general manager, European, African and Middle Eastern region, explained how cross-functional teams are established to empower people and the company as a whole(Case Study, 2005). The team helped the Kodak saved $100,000 by incorporating three of the units involved in its production, printers, graphic designers, and postal workers. The development team which is composed of top cinematographers and filmmakersRead MoreCompensation and Benefits2497 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesacknowledge the importance of compensation and benefit strategies used in organizations all around the world. Compensation and Benefits are used by different organisations globally to attract, motivate and retain their employees. This paper contains a case studies, summary and analysis of academic journals and books to understand the latest trends in compensation and benefits field. The three primary components which are used in designing a strategic compensation plan are listed. During the course of theRead MoreStarbucks Final Case Study4310 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ CASE STUDY: STARBUCKS CORPORATION (SBUX) Frank Mabson BUS 411: Strategic Planning Professor Oma Lopes Midway College - Online Historical Background The name Starbucks came from a character that was chief mate aboard the Pequod in the novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville (Rolph, 2012). Originally, the name for the company was Pequod until one of the original co-owners vetoed it and agreed on the name Starbucks instead. Now, we associate the name Starbucks with the companyRead More The Ethics of Fast Food Essay2395 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesJournal put it in a headline: the company wants to run over its competition with a Mack Truck. (1) With the number of actual outlets, specific issues will depend from outlet to outlet. However, in general, the professional issues regarding this case mainly deals with food quality issues. These range from the technology in processing the food to store sanitary policies. First, take the production of the famous McDonalds French fry. During the chains early years French fries were made fromRead MoreStarbucks vs Dunkin Donuts4794 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesStarbucks Balanced Scorecard 15 11. Dunkin Donuts Company Overview 15 12. Dunkin Donuts SWOT 16 13. Dunkin Donuts Balanced Scorecard 19 14. Conclusions 21 15. Reference 22 Ã¢â¬Æ' 1. INTRODUCTION This study gives a brief review of the U.S. and international coffee shop industry. The coffee industry includes 20,000 stores with combined revenue of $11 billion. Approximately 20 million people work in the coffee industry worldwide. The coffee industry isRead MoreGender Differences in Leadership Styles and Behaviour3458 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages| 1 | Overview of the study | 2 | Objectives of this study | 3 | Masculine and feminine leadership | 4 | Factors that influence an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style(Not gender-linked) | 5 | Leadership - The Indra Nooyi Way | 6 | Howard Shultz - Leadership Of Starbucks Coffee | 7 | Comparative study of the leadership styles of Indra Nooyi and Howard Schultz | 8 | Conclusion | 9 | References | Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Behaviour Overview of the study: The term leaders refers
Question: Discuss about the Cost of Production in Manufacturing Industry. Answer: Introduction Cost of Production also known as Production Cost refers to costs, which are incurred by a manufacturer in the manufacture or production of the goods. It comprises of various expenses, which includes, but not restricted to, raw materials, labor, consumables and other general overheads. These costs can be classified as Fixed Costs and changeable Costs. Fixed Costs refers to the costs that are incurred in spite of the manufacturing process (Shepherd, 2015). Whereas, the Variable Costs are costs, which would be incurred only when the manufacturing activities take place. The report focuses on the cost of production in manufacturing industry in Australia. It highlights the causes of such costs and the means by which it can be reduced. Manufacturing Sector in Australia In recent times, the manufacturing facilities in the Australia have been on a declining trend as their share in the economy has declined in the last 30 years. It is presently accounting for about 7% of the total production and employment (rba.gov.au, 2017). This is due to an increase in the supply from economies like China which is having lower labor cost. During the mid 2000s, a boost in the demand for the Australian made commodities helped to raise the valuation of Australian Dollars. The rate of exchange is so high that it put additional pressure on the manufacturers, further adding to the already pressurized manufacturers from the structural changes in the industry. Breaking Down of Costs The Business Costs can be broken down in a number of different ways (industry.gov.au, 2017). They are as follows- Labor Costs- This cost includes all the employee payments and social contributions. Rent Facility Charges- This includes the payments made by the property owners for using the building and other structures. Interest and Debt Charges- This implies the cost of the capital, which is determined using the interest rates. Transportation- This includes costs for the transportation of goods by road, rail, pipeline, water or air. Utilities- This includes charges for the provision of the electricity, gas and water. Taxes- This comprises of aggregate of the company and the insurance taxes. Manufacturing in Australia The manufacturing output in Australia has seen a steady increase throughout the 1990s before slowing down in the beginning of the early 2000s. The level of output between the current time and a decade ago is similar. This is given in Graph 1 below. Over the last two decades, the Australian Economy has grown rapidly resulting in a marked decline in the manufacturing output in the share of total output. Level of employment has also declined in the last 2 decades, with growth in labor output in line with that of the economy. (Graph 1: Manufacturing Indicators, Source: rba.gov.au, 2017) Though these trends have been apparent for a few decades, the time period after the global crisis has been characterized by the comparatively slower growth of global manufacturing sector, a more obvious easing in productivity growth and fall in employment in the sector. The manufacturing sector in Australia is quite diversified with having various large industries such as food, beverage and tobacco, machinery and equipment, coal chemicals and metal products, this has been shown in graph 2 below. (Graph 2: Manufacturing Output. Source: rba.gov.au, 2017) The ABSs input output tables provide some light into the organization of these sub-industries (Table1). Amongst the four major sub-industries, two major industry types emerge. The food, beverage tobacco and metal products sub industries both rely heavily on inputs from the primary industries (agriculture and mining) where Australia has an adequate supply. Only a low share of items is being imported. On the other hand, the machinery and petroleum, coal and chemical sub industries use comparatively less inputs from primary industries in Australia. They constitute of more imported items compared to others. They are vulnerable to intense competition due to imports and their final products are targeted primarily to the domestic market. (Table 1: Characteristics of Australian Manufacturing. Source: rba.gov.au, 2017) The ratio proportion of value being added to the total production in the Australian manufacturing industry is largely comparable to that in other advanced economies manufacturing industries (Table 2). (Table 2: Manufacturing Value-added Share of Production. Source: rba.gov.au, 2017) Compared to other Australian Industries, manufacturing industry is a low revenue generating sector; the ratio of value generated to the total production (29%) is the lowest of any industry. Difficulties Integrating in Supply Chains Another factor that has a contribution on the growth of the manufacturing industry is the economys amalgamation with the global supply chains. The recent data on the global supply chains suggest that economies of other countries integrated themselves with the global supply chain to counter the issue with the inferiors and imported goods. The geographical location of Australia is further contributing to the enhanced cost associated to trade and posing a major barrier in larger participation in global supply chains. Moreover, the higher trade cost associated with Australia is posing a challenge to the domestic producers being only having the comparatively small domestic market. They are unable to have the benefit from the economies of scale which can be achieved from lager market and demand. Conclusion The depreciation and devaluation of the Australian Dollar in the recent years has enhanced the competitiveness of the Australian manufacturing industry. Moreover, it is likely to have a consistent growth in the food, beverages and tobacco sectors due to the fact that the export rate increase for the Australian products along with their relative advantages in their primary resources. Compared to this, less demand from the mining industry and the adverse effect on the production of passenger vehicle will negatively affect the rate of output. However, the current rate of production for automobiles and associated equipments only contributes to around 5% of the total manufacturing output. Moreover, in the long term, the lack of infrastructure will further negatively affect the production of the manufacturing industry. The global reduction of the price of manufactured items along with the high valuation of the Australian currency in the time of the resource investment will further affect t he potentiality of the several Australian manufacturers with relatively structural change in the manufacturing sector. It leads to the closure and shifting of the manufacturing facilities to other economies having lower cost of production. However, there are one sector which is proving competitive advantage for the Australian economy is the RD. It is due to the reason that Australian is having huge number of well trained and skilled employees. One important factor that should be considered is lower demand of employees in the manufacturing sector due to their diminishing operations Bibliography Buckley, P. J., Casson, M. (2016).The future of the multinational enterprise. Springer. DRURY, C. M. (2013).Management and cost accounting. Springer. Dunning, J. H. (2012).International Production and the Multinational Enterprise (RLE International Business). Routledge. Fre, R., Primont, D. (2012).Multi-output production and duality: theory and applications. Springer Science Business Media. Ham, I., Hitomi, K., Yoshida, T. (2012).Group technology: applications to production management. Springer Science Business Media. industry.gov.au. (2017). Retrieved 7 August 2017, from https://industry.gov.au/Office-of-the-Chief-Economist/Publications/AustralianIndustryReport/assets/Australian-Industry-Report-2016-Chapter-3.pdf Nicholson, W., Snyder, C. (2014).Microeconomic theory. . rba.gov.au. (2017). Retrieved 7 August 2017, from https://www.rba.gov.au/publications/bulletin/2016/jun/pdf/bu-0616-4.pdf Shephard, R. W. (2012).Cost and production functions(Vol. 194). Springer Science Business Media. Shepherd, R. W. (2015).Theory of cost and production functions. Princeton University Press.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The importance of the Internet grows rapidly in all fields of human life, including not only research and education but also marketing and trade as well as entertainment and hobbies. This implies that it becomes more and more important to know how to use Internet services and, as a part of this, to read and write English. Of course, the majority of mankind cannot use the Internet nowadays or in the near future, since they live in countries which lack the necessary economical and technological infrastructure. But the Internet causes polarization in developed countries, too: people are divided into Internet users and Internet illiterates, and as the use of the Internet grows and often replaces traditional methods of communication, the illiterates may find themselves in an awkward position. In general, it is easy to learn to use Internet services. The worst problems of Internet illiteracy are, in addition to lack of economical resources of course, wrong attitudes. We will write a custom essay sample on Benefits of Learning English or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Older people are usually not accustomed to live in a world of continuous and rapid change, and they may not realize the importance of the Internet or the easiness of learning to use it. But although Internet services themselves are, generally speaking, easy to learn and use, you will find yourself isolated on the Internet if you are not familiar with English. This means that knowledge or lack of knowledge of English is one of the most severe factors that cause polarization. Learning to use a new Internet service or user interface may take a few hours, a few days, or even weeks, but it takes years to learn a language so that you can use it in a fluent and self-confident manner. Of course, when you know some English, you can learn more just by using it on the Internet, but at least currently the general tendency among Internet users is to discourage people in their problems with the English language. Incorrect English causes a few flames much more probably than encouragement and friendly advice. In different countries and cultures, English has different positions. There are countries where English is the native language of the majority, there are countries where English is a widely known second language, and there are countries where English has no special position. These differences add to the above-mentioned polarization. Specifically, it is difficult for people in previous colonies of other countries than Great Britain (e. g. France, Spain, the Netherlands) to adapt to the necessity of learning English. Locally, it may be necessary to learn the language of the previous colonial power since it is often an official language and the common language of educated people; globally, English is necessary for living on the Internet. And the more languages you have to learn well, the less time and energy you will have for learning other things.